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The Facts About "UPS Systems"
POWER SOLUTIONS LLC
DIEBOLD
* Authorized LTI UPS Factory Representative For All Texas ! 
Industrial
Commercial
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vs
Markets: Petro-Chem, pulp and paper, offshore drilling etc.
Expected Demand Life Of Industrial UPS By Industry:
15-25 years
life expectancy average.  Industry markets may add or reduce loads to the same UPS.  Industrial loads can be all over the plant subjecting the UPS to all sorts of random electrical fluctuations and hazards, such as forklift - welding etc. that can generate electrical spikes, short circuits and transients back to the UPS.

>Power components are de-rated to approximately    65% of rated capacity when the UPS is at 100% rated output .

Typical Loads of a Industrial UPS:
Instrumentation, motors, valves, VFD's, controls.
> The need for output isolation transformers and transient protection is included.  Output can be 3 phase or single phase.


Loss of UPS (if it fails):
Production stops, Possible catastrophic fires or explosions within a petro-chem plant can result when electrical controls no longer work, resulting potential loss of life and assets.

Industrial UPS Philosophy:
Industrial UPS manufacturers look at the UPS and Batteries as a complete power path system.  There are no contactors in the industrial UPS. This concept in design in the industrial UPS results in a much higher 'Mean Time' between failure using solid state devices.

Battery DC link Voltage and Ripple:
Battery and UPS Manufacturers know the lower the number of cells the more reliable and safer the DC system will be.  Also, the lower the ripple the longer the batteries will last.

>Typical Industrial UPS dc link voltages are 125vdc - 250vdc.


Standby Time:
Industrial UPS systems are custom built to the application demands of the customer.  Industrial UPS wil accommodate or adjust for any standby time and distinguishes whether wet or sealed batteries are being used.

UPS input and front-end requirements:
Petro-Chem plants and offshore applications can experience many harmonics due to motor, VFD's and other transient sources, hence the need for input isolation transformers and surge suppression.

Cost:
Varies due to industrial application.  Petro-Chem and Offshore industries must consider the costs of down-time, production and material loss, safety, and life cycle of the UPS.  Industrial UPS's are reliable, rugged and built to last a full 15 - 25 years!

>Very Impressive 200,000 - 300,000 hours MTBF typical for Industrial UPS systems. Industrial UPS's come in one or three-phase outputs.
Expected Demand Life Of Commercial UPS By Industry:
5-7 years
because the electrial equipment that is being backed-up is obsolete in 5-7 years and companies generally start all over with new UPS's and supporting equipment when they get new loads.  Commercial loads typically never leave the building.  Commercial power loads are electrically clean compared to heavy industry loads.

>Commerical UPS power components are rated very close to the full 100% rated capacity output of the UPS.  Typical output is 3 phase only.


Typical Loads of a Commercial UPS:
PC's, VISA card processing, communications, billing, and software design are typical.
> There is no real need for much input or output protection in the UPS itself because of the clean environment and lack of random electrical hazards.

Loss of UPS (if it fails):
Production, office and billing stops.



Commercial UPS Philosopy:
Commercial UPS manufacturers only look to lessen the cost of the UPS and give very little regard to the batteries.



Battery DC link Voltage and Ripple:
Commercial UPS manufacturers let the Battery reliability issue become the concern of the battery manufacturers and use the batteries as a filter to reduce high ripple which reduces the life of the batteries.
>Typical Commercial UPS dc link voltages are 360vdc and above.

Standby Time:
Commercial - Off the shelf.  One design fits all.  Typically the rectifier is only good for charging batteries that only offer standby time in the range of 15-20 minutes or less.


UPS input and front-end requirements:
Commercial applications have relatively clean input power so there is no great need for input considerations other than perhaps power factor correction.


Cost:
Commercial off-the-shelf units typically cost 40% less, but on average have a 5-7 year life cycle.



>Much lower MTBF - Typically comes in only three-phase output without dual static switches and input or output isolation transformers.
Comparison Conclusion and Results
Commercial UPS systems are finding their way into industrial applications because of cost, delivery and lack of adequate knowledge as to the difference between 'true' industrial UPS's, industrialized UPS's and commercial UPS's.  Commercial UPS manufacturers have tried to "industrialize" their UPS systems by designing in such meaningless items or modifications such as heavier sheet metal and filters on them.  Because they have found their way into industrial applications they are now advertising that they are industrial UPS systems.  Industrial UPS systems is a niche market where the design, the more expensive heavy duty components and configurations were borne out of the analysis of failures and dropped loads that were encountered throughout the years in heavy industrial environments such as in the Petro-Chem industry and Offshore industry.

Commercial UPS systems range in VA size.  The small VA size are found at Office Depot (Used to backup computers or networks).  The larger size units can range up to 1000+ kva.  In the industrial UPS market, units are primarily between 10 to 300kva with the majority of them being 50kva and below. 
Commercial systems are typically 3 phase output only.  Industrial systems offer the more reliable single phase as well as 3 phase outputs.

Commerical UPS systems can be easily identified by the UPS unit
having to go to bypass when the batteries are disconnected from the UPS.  This is due to its rectifier/charger output having high ripple to both the batteries and the inverter of the UPS.  In an industrial UPS, if the batteries are removed for replacement, the battery charger (rectifier) continues to supply voltage to the UPS which keeps it working continuously.  This industrial feature of 'low ripple' is ignored by the commercial UPS manufacturers in their commercial units because it adds expense to the UPS.

I hope this comparison shows clearly that an industrial UPS is built for rugged reliability, 15 - 25 year life cycle while providing greater safety and lower operating cost when production downtime, potential litigation and material costs are taken into account. 
 

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